The Fight of Kyai Kajoran Against
Susuhunan Amangkurat First
( MATARAM, 1946 – 1980 )
Ahmad Adaby Darban
Persembahan untuk 70 Tahun
Prof. Dr. Djoko Suryo, 30 Desember 1939 – 30 Desember 2009
The Mataram kingdom was an Islamic empire in Central and East Java, and in the bureaucratic system the ulama held office as reprecentative of the religious institution. The function of the ulama in the Mataram kingdom was to advice the king on religious and ceremonial matters Besides, the ulama lived in the rural areas, He was the leader of Pondok Pesantren (the institution of Islamic education), and was the informal leader in the rural areas.
Before Sunan Amangkurat I became ruler in the Mataram kingdom, between the king of the Mataram kingdom and the ulama there was institutionalised relationship. However, when Sunan Amangkurat I became ruler in the Mataram kingdom, a conflict erupted with the ulama.
This paper proposes to explain the conflict between Sunan Amangkurat I (the king of the Mataram kingdom) and Kyai Kajoran (the ulama and the informal leaders in the rural area “Desa Kajoran”). The period of the conflict was 1646 ‑ 1680. The set of problems that provoked the conflict were the new policies and the actions of the king in the Mataram kingdom on frienship with the Dutch and the role of religious institutions in the state.
The conflict came from inside the Mataram dynasty, in particular from the ulama Kyai Kajoran and Raden Trunajaya (who belonged to the aristocratic family of Madura, and was the son in law of Kyai Kajoran). The result was that Sunan Amangkurat I was dethroned.
This paper uses the social history approach. This approach is intended to explain the relation of the ulama to rural society. The role of the ulama was as an informal leader and key person in the rural areas. Besides, the social history approach is desigued to explain the relation of the ulama and the king in the bureacratic structure of the Mataram kingdom.
THE NATURE OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN KYAI KAJORAN AND THE MATARAM DYNASTY
In the Mataram kingdom there were three types of ulama: The first ulama was the abdi dalem (the ulama who was the servant of the king in the bureaucratic structure). The second ulama came from the aristocratic family. The third ulama came from the rural areas, was the leader of Pondok Pesantren,and was the informal leader in the rural areas.1
Kyai kajoran was an ulama who came from the aristocratic family and was the country ulama. Pangeran Raden Ing Kajoran (the father of Kyai Kajoran) was the son in law of Panembahan Senopati (the founder of the Mataram kingdom). Pangeran Raden Ing Kajoran married Raden Ayu Wangsacipta (the daughter of Panembahan Senopati)2, and had a son Kyai Kajoran. Therefore Kyai Kajoran was the grandchild of Panembahan Senopati, and he had the title of a member of the aristocratic family of the Mataram dynasty. This title was Raden and he was known as Panembahan Rama, because he had the respect of the king of the Mataram kingdom and he had the respect of some people in the rural areas.3
In this paper I shall use Kyai Kajoran for his name, in order to distinguished between Pangeran Raden Ing Kajoran and Kyai Kajoran. Besides it is necessary to make it clear who fought Sunan Amangkurat I.
Although Kyai Kajoran was from an aristocratic family, he preferred to live in the rural areas, because he headed the pondok pesantren. As a teacher of the Islamic religion, he preferred to be close to the people. Therefore, Kyai Kajoran was an influential ulama for people, as informal leader in the rural areas.
Kyai Kajoran was known as a devoted muslem. In addition he was known as the sacred person and as dukun (the man who can cure all deseases). The king of the Mataram kingdom often called for help to Kyai Kajoran to heal the sick. Sunan Amangkurat had called on Kyai Kajoran for help to heal his sick son.4
The mataram dynasty had respect for Kyai Kajoran, because he was sakti (the man with supernatural power), and was an ascetic.5 Therefore, between Kyai Kajoran and the Mataram Dynasty there was a close relationship. This relationship between Kyai Kajoran and the Mataram dynasty continued on at first with the new policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I. But the new policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I eventually offended Kyai Kajoran.
THE ROLE OF ULAMA IN THE MATARAM KINGDOM
BEFORE SUNAN AMANGKURAT I
In the period when Sultan Agung (1613 ‑ 1646) was the ruler in the Mataram kingdom (before Sunan Amangkurat I), the ulama supported his government. Sultan Agung cherised the ulama because was a member of religious elite, and because he was a scholar.6 The ulama was adviser to the king on both religious matters and secular policy. Besides the ulama the bureaucratic elite in the structure of the Mataram kingdom, whose office was known as Pengulu (the department of Islamic religion). One of the important functions of the ulama was to conduct marriage ceremonies of the king and other members of the aristocratic family.
The country ulama was able to give support to the Mataram kingdom because he was in charge of the army reserves. The country ulama had santri (the student of pondok pesantren ) who were trained in Pencak Silat self defense). If the Mataram kingdom was in need of army reserves, the ulama came forward as the leader of rural troops. When Sultan Agung made a move on Surabaya in 1624, seven thousand of the Wiratani troops fought.7
Sultan Agung created the Mahkamah Syari'ah (the institution of Islamic Law). The ulama had the who position in the Mahkamah Syari'ah. Besides supplied the Lemah Perdikan (the land Sultan Agung with tax free) for the country ulama. The Lemah Perdikan was for seviced as mosque, pondok pesantren and grave.
The relationship between the ulama and the king of the Mataram kingdom in the Sultan Agung's period. because he respected of the religious norms. But the relationship between the ulama and the king of the Mataram kingdom was in trouble if the king deviated from religious norms.8 Besides if the king acted arbitrarily to words his people, the ulama was not loyal to the king. Only the ulama had enaugh courage to fight the king.
When Sultan Agung was king of the Mataram kingdom he was successful in his relationship with the ulama. In fact, the ulama supported Sultan Agung in his goverenment.
THE GOVERNMENT OF SUNAN AMANGKURAT I
IN THE MATARAM KINGDOM
( 1646 – 1677 )
Mas Syayidin was the child name of Sunan Amangkurat I. He was born in 1619, the son of Sultan Agung and Ratu Kulon.9 When he became prince of the Mataram kingdom, he was given the name Arya Mataram.10
Sunan Amangkurat I's experiences as a child ,greatly influenced the way he ruled. Mas Sayidin was not interested in Islamic lesson, because he preferred to get involved with a Dutchman who was a prisoner of the Mataram kingdom, and this influenced his personality.11 Therefore, when Sunan Amangkurat I became ruler, he befriended the V.0.C. (Vereeniging Oost Indische Compagnie).
In 1646 Sultan Agung the king of the Mataram kingdom, died and Sunan Amangkurat I became ruler in the Mataram kingdom as the king's succesor. He pursued new policies and actions a far cry from Sultan Agung's rule. Before Sunan Amangkurat I became ruler, the Mataram kingdom opposed V.0.C..
Sultan Agung attacked Batavia ( 1628 ‑ 1629 ). In this war, J.P. Coen (Governor General V.0.C.) died. Sultan Agung fought against the V.0.C. occupation of Java. By contrast, the new policies of Sunan Amangkurat I friendship with V.0.C.. In 1646 Sunan Amangkurat I initiated afriendship treaty with V.0.C..
The friendship between Sunan Amangkurat I and V.0.C.was at the bottom of the distrubances which followed in the Mataram kingdom.12 The new which also contributed to there disturbances policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I were, among others: the secularization of the power structure; the Pangeran Alit affair; the Ratu Malang affair; the Roro Oyi Affair,and, finally the Alun‑alun Pleret affair.
Sunan Amangkurat I was secular the power structure. He suspended Mahkamah syari'ah (the department of Islamic law). Besides he suspended the religious institutions in the Mataram kingdom.13
The Babad Tanah Jawi (a Javanese source) and Van Goens reperted (a Dutch source) say Sunan Amangkurat I ruled with violence. Pangeran Alit (the younger brother of Sunan Amangkurat I) protested about the new policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I. Pangeran Alit was in revolt against Sunan Amangkurat I, so Sunan Amangkurat I murdered his brother.
Ratu Malang was the favourite wife of Sunan Amangkurat I. The sudde who of Ratu Malang in 1667 made Sunan Amangkurat I angry. He claimed that some of his wives had killed Ratu Malang. Therefore Sunan Amangkurat I killed forty‑three wives in the house.14
There was also a dispute between Sunan Amangkurat I and his son Adipati Anom over Roro Oyi, sengkeran (the mistress) of Sunan Amangkurat I. Before Sunan Amangkurat I slep with Roro Oyi, Adipati Anom took Roro Ayi away to Surabaya. Adipati Anom married Roro Oyi in Pangeran Pekik's house (Pangeran Pekik was the father of Sunan Amangkurat I's first wife Ratu Kulon, and so was father – in ‑ law of Sunan Amangkurat I). Sunan Amangkurat I was very angry. He burned down Adipati Anom's house and he killed Pangeran Pekik. Then , Sunan Amangkurat I rounded up Adipati Anom and Roro Oyi. Sunan Amangkurat I ordered Adipati Anom to kill Roro Oyi. After that, Sunan Amangkurat I banished Adipati Anom to Lipura (the south beach of Central Java).
In date Sunan Amangkurat I murdered the ulama at Alun‑alun Pleret. Sunan Amangkurat I eliminated the role of the ulama in Mataram kingdom, because the ulama resisted of the new policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I. In 1670 Sunan Amangkurat I assembled the ulama in the Alun‑alun Pleret (in front of the Sunan's Palace or Kraton).
Six thousand or so ulamas and their families were made to assemble at Alun-alun Pleret, Then, Sunan Amangkutar I's troops killed ulamas and their families alltogether.15
Kyai Kajoran was safe from the Slaughter, because he came not to Alun‑alun Pleret. The Alun‑alun Pleret Affair made Kyai Kajoran had very angry, then, he resented to Sunan Amangkurat I.
THE FIGHT OF KYAI KAJORAN
The policies and actions of Sunan Amangkurat I was maked social unrest in the Mataram kingdom. The aristocratic family in the Mataram kingdom split up, because the part of the aristocratic family resented to Sunan Amangkurat I.
Adipati Anom (the son of Sunan Amangkurat I) held a grudge against his father. Therefore he begged for allied fight Sunan Amangkurat I. Adipati Anom pleaded with Kyai Kajoran in order to support him.
Trunajaya was from an aristocratic family of Madura. He held a grudge again to Sunan Amangkurat I, because Cakraningrat I (the Bupati of Madura and his grand father) was kiled by Sunan Amangkurat I. Besides, Cakraningrat II (the father of Trunajaya) was killed by Sunan Amangkurat I too. Sunan Amangkurrat I appointed the new Cakraningrat II (the uncle of Trunajaya) to be Bupati Madura. Cakraningrat II had prefer to live in the Kraton Mataram kingdom. Therefore he neglected his people. Trunajaya had succesfull in influenced his people and an aristocratic family, for fight Sunan Amangkurat I and Cakraningrat II. Trunajaya pleaded with Kyai Kajoran to support him.
Kyai Kajoran blessed and support Trunajaya. As string of the alliance, Kyai Kajoran married off his daughter with Trunajaya. The death of Wiramenggala (the son‑in‑law of Kyai Kajoran) was killed by Sunan Amangkurat I, made enraged of Kyai Kajoran. Therefore, Kyai Kajoran allianced with Trunajaya and Adipati Anom agreed on Sunan Amangkurat I threw.
Trunajaya came back to Madura, he organized the troops. He gained support of the people and an aristocratic family in Madura. Besides, Trunajaya was favored came by Kraeng Galesung and his troops from Makasar. Kraeng Calesung held a grudge against V.0.C because Makasar was overwhelmed by V.0.C..
In 1674, Trunajaya and his troops overwhelmed Madura island. After that, Trunajaya moved from Madura to east Java. Trunajaya succeed in defeat the Dutch in Surabaya and he defeated the Bupaties that who loyal to the Mataram kingdom. After East Java was overwhelmed by Trunajaya, he joined forces with Kajoran's troops in the Central Java.
Kyai Kajoran's toops were composed of Santri and country people. Besides, he was backed up by Adipati Anom's troops. Kajoran's troops routed the Mataram troops. Even, Pangeran Purubaya and his troops of the Mataram kingdom changed side with Kyal Kajoran. The Kraton Pleret (the palace of Sunan Amangkurat I) was surrounded by Kyai Kajoran.
The arrival of Trunajaya's troops reinforced Kyai Kajoran. In 2 June 1677 the Kajoran's troops and the Trunajaya’s troops captured the Mataram kingdom.16 Sunan Amangkurat I got away to Batavia where he requested the support of the Dutch. Therefore, Sunan Amangkurat I was trown out of the Mataram kingdom by Kyai Kajoran and Trunajaya.
Adipati Anom realized about the destruction of the Mataram kingdom, because the Mataram dynasty will extinct. Therefore Adipati Anom changed his mind he sided with his father (Sunan Amangkurat I). Sunan Amangkurat I forgived Adipati Anom, then Adipati Anom escorted his father.
On the road, Sunan Amangkurat I fell ill, therefore he appointed Adipati Anom as Sunan Amangkurat II (the king of the Mataram kingdom). After that event, Sunan Amangkurat I died in the Wanayasa forest (1677) from a long illness, then he was buried in the Tegal Arum (or Tegal Wangi) country. Therefore Sunan Amangkurat I was title as Sunan Tegal Arum or Sunan Tegal Wangi. He was only the king of the Mataram kingdom that was not lie buried in the Mataram Kings' resting palace.
Sunan Amangkurat II met with Cornelis Speelman (comandan of the Dutch army) in the Jepara. He called for help of the Dutch for the Mataram kingdom took over. Besides Sunan Aamngkurat II called for help to Speelman destroy for Kajoran's and Trunajaya's troops. Speelman promised Sunan Amangkurat II help, on condition, he must endorsed the Jepara Agreement. Sunan Amangkurat II endorsed the Japara Agreement (20 0ctober 1677).17 That agreement among other theris features :
1. The East Krawang area until the Pamanukan river must be turned over to the V.0.C.
2. Sunan Amangkurat II conceded that in debt of V.0.C. in the form many (250.000 real Spain and 20.000 spanis reals must paid per month as the war duty)
3. The East end Java Nortern seashore until the Krawang area, as the V.0.C. control.
4. The V.0.C. as monopoly trade of opium and cloth in the Mataram kingdom.
The Jepara Agreement was endosed by Sunan Amangkurat II, was although hurted to the Mataram kingdom.
THE RESTORATION OF THE MATARAM DYNASTY
After Sunan Amangkurat I was collaps, Trunajaya meanted domination in the Mataram kingdom. He indicated as who inherited of the Majapahit dynasty. Therefore he qualified as the king of the Mataram kingdom Trunajaya moved the Mataram wealth from Kraton Pleret to Kediri. He prepared Kediri as the central which of his kingdom. Trunajaya had the title as Pangeran Maduretno.
Kyai Kajoran was not occupation the Mataram kingdom, because he preferred live with country people and he led the pondok pesantren. After war, Kyai Kajoran came back to Kajoran Country. He reestablished his pondok pesantren.
Sunan Amangkurat II's troops with the Dutch troops recaptured the Mataram kingdom. The great attacked of Sunan Amangkurat II and the Dutch troops occupied the Kraton Pleret (the Sunan Palace), the they tracked down Trunajaya and Kajoran. The Dutch troops (under the command of Captain J.A. Sloot) rounded up Kyai Kajoran in the Gunung Kidul areas. In 14 September 1679 Kyai Kajoran was kill by J.A. Sloot.18
Captain Jonker's troops attacked Trunajaya in East Java. In 25 December 1679 Trunajaya was rounded up by Jonker, then Jonker handed Trunajaya over to Sunan Amangkurat II in the Mataram kingdom. In 2 January 1680 Trunajaya was killed by Sunan Amangkurat II.
Sunan Amangkurat II restored power and beureucratic structure in the Mataram kingdom. He cultivated better ties with the ulama. Therefore Sunan Amangkurat II assigned the ulama in the beureucratic structure of the Mataram kingdom. It seem Sunan Amangkurat II realized that require the cooperation with the ulama in his government, because the Mataram kingdom was Islamic empire. The cooperation between the king and the ulama which furthered as the tradition in the Mataram kingdom.
1 Sutjipto. F.A. Pemimpin Agama di Wilayah Kerajaan Mataram, ( Jakarta : Lembaga Researech Kebudayaan Nasional, 1973 ), p. 21 ‑ 25.
2 H.J. De Graaf. " Het Kadjoran Vraagstuk", in Djawa magazine, No. 4-5, 20 ste jaargang,1940, p.326.
3 Sutjipto.F.A. " Panembahan dalam Sistem Titulatur Tradisionil ", in Kirsada, No. 1., 1969, p. 86.
4 H.J. De Graaf. Op.cit. p. 294.
5 Babad Tanah Jawi. W.L. Olthof (s‑Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff, 1941 ), p. 154.
6 Sutjipto.F.A. " Pengaruh Ulama Dalam Bidang Politik dan Militer di Kerajaan Mataram" in Bacaan Sejarah, No. 9. Maret, 1980, p. 3.
7 B. Schrieke, Indonesian Sociological Studies, II, ( Bandung W. van Hoeve Ltd.,1959), p. 131.
8 Sutjipto.F.A. Op.cit., Pemimpin Agama ... p. 29. And in Soemarsaid Moertono. State and State craft in Old Java, a Study of The Leter Mataram Period, 16th. to 19 th. Century.( New York: Asian Studies Cornell University, 1963), p. 29.
9 T.G.Th.Pigeaud. " Islamic States in Java 1500 ‑ 1700 ". in VKI No. 70. p. 54.
10 Babad Tanah Jawi. Op.cit. p. 141.
11 B.H.M. Vlekke, Nusantara A History of Indonesia. ( s-Gravenhage: van Hoeve, 1959), p. 175.
12 Ibid. P. 175.
13 Ibid. p. 176.
14 Babad Tanah Jawi. Op.cit. p. 149. and in H.J. De Graaf. " De Regering van Sunan Amangkurarat I Tegal Wangi, Vorst van Mataram 1646 ‑ 16'77 VKI , deel 33, 1, 1961.
15 B.H.M. Vlekke, Op.cit. P. 174, from Olsow, Rijckloff Volchertsz van Goens, De Cariere van een Diplomaat, 1619 ‑ 1655. ( Utrecht: 1954.)
16 H.J. De Graaf. Het Kajoran...." Op.cit. p.312.
17 Sutjipto.F.A. “Perang Trunojoyo” in Sartono Kartodirdjo (ed.), Sejarah Perlawanan-Perlawanan Terhadap Kolonialisme. ( Jakarta: Pusat
Sejarah ABRI, 1973 ), p. 19.
18 H.J. De Graaf. " Het Kajoran …" Op.cit., p. 319.
Babad Tanah Djawi. W.L. Olthof . s-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff,1941
Graaf, De. H.J. “ Het Kadjoran Vraagstuk “. In Djawa Magazine, No.4-
5, 20 ste jaargang, 1940.
Pigeaud. Th. T.G. “ Islamic States in Java 1500 – 1700 “, in VKI No.70
Schrieke. B. Indonesian Sociological Studies II. Bandung: W. van
Hoeve Ltd., 1959.
Soemarsaid Moertono. State and State Craft in Old Java: A Study of
The Letter Mataram Period, 16th to 19th Century. New York :
Asian Studies Cornell University, 1963.
Sutjipto, FA. “ Panembahan dalam Sistem Titulatur Tradisional “
dalam jurnal Fakultas Sastra dan Kebudayaan UGM, Kirsada.
No. 1. Th. 1969.
---------- Pemimpin Agama di Wilayah Kerajaan Mataram . Jakarta :
Lembaga Research Kebudayaan Nasional, 1973.
---------- “Perang Trunojoyo”, in Sartono Kartodirdjo (ed.) Sejarah Per-
lawanan – perlawanan Terhadap Kolonialisme. Jakarta : Pusat
Sejarah ABRI, 1973.
Vlekke. BHM. Nusantara History of Indonesia. S-Gravenhage: van
Olsow, Rijcloff Volchertsz van Goens, De Cariere van een Diplomaat
1619 – 1655. Utrecht: 1954.